Expert systems: Tools and Languages

The knowledge-based expert system solves problems using human knowledge. An expert system is a system possessing expert knowledge in a specific field using Artificial intelligence. A capable expert system solves problems quickly and accurately and works at ease without many technicalities.

An expert system stores the human expertise in a knowledge database. The system behaves like a human expert in a specific field. Humans experts in a particular field add the data to the database to be used by the non-experts for performing various actions, including information retrieval.

Expert systems find an advantage in situations wherein a human is too costly to hire. In addition, the error rate turns high, slows down the work, human bias creeps in, or distance constraints exist. The performance of the expert system depends on the knowledge stored in the database.

Expert systems are not the replacement for humans but support humans in solving complex queries. The system does have the human capability thought process but works based on the knowledge base’s knowledge. The more the amount of expertise more is the performance. 

Expert system language and tools

Expert system is developed using various languages and tools. The most widely used tools are LISP and PROLOG. In the rule-based programmers,   OPS-5 has gained popularity. OPS was used to develop an expert system known as R1.

C and C++ are the major applications used, while the system requires high speed. CLIPS, known as C Language Integrated Production System, is the significant development environment for developing object and rule-based expert systems.

Java has recently gained popularity in developing expert systems. Relative to the general purpose, programming languages, and shells give enhanced tools for implementing expert systems and quick design. Shell is a programming environment with essential utilities for creating and executing expert systems.

As the shell provides a build-in inference engine, developers can pay more attention to inputting problem-specific knowledge into the knowledge base. With the shell, the programming skills required to build an expert system reduces significantly. Moreover, the design and the execution process gets minimized.

EMYCIN is an example of a shell. It provides tools comprising the following.

  1. An abbreviated rule language that is simple to read relative to LISP and is short compared to the English subset used by the MYCIN.
  2. An interface between the program and the system designer that supports editing and displaying  rules, executing specific rule sets on a problem, modifying knowledge in tables
  3. Interface engine that is goal-driven
  4. The communication interface between the end user and the program
  5. Monitors the behavior of the program, illustrating how a conclusion is reached

General purpose shells address a wide range of problems. Domain-specific tools have been built to render special features to aid the development of expert systems. The usage of shells encourages expert systems to perform a wide variety of tasks successfully.

Expert system significance

An expert system helps enhance the quality of decisions and minimizes cost expenses. With the rapid development of AI techniques, the expert system finds applicability in various fields of IoT and the health domains.

Expert systems work with difficult problems that humans cannot easily solve. The expert system renders fast and efficient solutions for a specific problem and offers high security. It works to generate consistent responses for redundant decisions.

Expert systems are even available on holidays. Scope exists that humans may forget some information and makes a mistake, but the expert system can use their information consistently. Expert systems using AI technology help make better decisions to enhance the patient’s health.

Thus, it eliminates error and facilitates non-expert users to make acceptable conclusions. Expert systems serve as the perfect platform to diagnose diseases at an early stage and control them. Human intervention will enhance the performance of the expert systems.

When combined with Big Data analysis and computing, expert systems can enhance healthcare services that enable real-time decisions.


An expert system is undoubtedly reliable in providing highly valued decisions. Humans, of course, have the expertise to make critical decisions in accomplishing success. However, they are limited to perform complex work. Here is where the expert systems’ role is exceptional.

As knowledge is vital for an organization’s functioning, expert knowledge is critical for the organization’s future. As the system helps store and retain knowledge, the need to hire experts can be eliminated or minimized.

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